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General Semantics & Other Fields

What Has General Semantics Influenced?

General semantics has influenced a number of fields. The list below compiled by Martin H. Levinson, Ph.D., details a number of fields with explanations of just how general semantics has influenced them.

General Semantics & Education

From General Semantics and the Future of Education by Rachel Lauer:

General semantics has made a great contribution toward freeing the human race to be fully human. I believe our educational system can and will increasingly use general semantics toward that end because general semantics has features that make it acceptable to educators. It is academic enough for the most bookish scholars, scientific enough for the most critical rationalists, and realistic enough for the most down-to-earth pragmatists. (1)

General Semantics & Teacher Training

From Introductory Lectures on General Semantics by Francis P. Chisholm:

Training in general semantics is especially important for teachers; it should result in increased efficiency of instruction…. Among the improvements, which might reasonably be predicated (from learning GS) are:

  1. Increased awareness by teachers of “mental” blockages and difficulties in learning by students and improved techniques for removing them.
  2. Increased awareness by teachers of the importance of language habits in learning and personality.
  3. Better measurement of individual differences.
  4. Better understanding of the relationship between subject-matters which are traditionally kept too separate in graduate school training.
  5. Better adjustment and understanding of their own (linguistically conditioned) problems by the teachers themselves. (2)

General Semantics & Journalism

From Journalism Ethics by John C. Merrill:

Journalists work in the field of language; words are the basic tools of their craft. Along with other communicative symbols, such as pictures, words construct the “maps” of the territory of reality. Since language affects thought, and thought affects action, it is easy to see how the meanings we attach to words relate to the field of journalistic ethics. The orientation, called general semantics, expounded by the Polish philosopher, Alfred Korzybski, provides seminal concepts related to words, their meanings, and their implications. An orientation to general semantics will raise the linguistic consciousness of journalists, bring them to a higher level of sophistication, instill in them a recognition of the weakness and the power of words, and generally help them overcome the enslaving tendencies of language. (3)

General Semantics & Psychology

From Psycho-Logical Fate and Freedom by Bruce I. Kodish:

…many major formulators and many practitioners in the related fields of psychotherapy, counseling, and consulting have been influenced by Korzybski. For example, in the area known as “Cognitive-Behavior Therapy,” the approach of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) was developed by Albert Ellis, who studied and makes significant use of Korzybski’s work. Isabel Caro has developed her Cognitive Therapy of Evaluation based on GS. (Her book, General Semantics in Psychotherapy, shows some of the extent of GS influence in that field.) Korzybski’s work has also been recognized by Lou Marinoff, one of the leaders in the developing field of “philosophical practice and consulting. (4)

General Semantics & Human Communications

From Internet webpage comments by UCSD professor Michael Cole, holder of the Dr. Sanford I. Berman Chair in General Semantics:

General Semantics is a theory of language and meaning that shares a great deal of methodological and theoretical positions with the contemporary study of human communication. It provides a useful way to come to grips with the new paradigms of human relations and human interaction that have resulted as the forms of communication and mediation between individuals, groups and societies has expanded in the last few centuries. While traditionally considered a critical reflection on the nature of language as a principal medium of human interactions, General Semantics also recognizes that language is inadequate to mediate many new forms of interaction and that, moreover, other kinds of media and tools also regulate the relations of individuals. (5)

General Semantics & Media Ecology

From Media Ecology is General Semantics Writ Large by Terence P. Moran:

In 1976, when Neil Postman became the editor or ETC: A Review of General Semantics, he proposed that the journal expand its areas of concern to include all media of communication. As he liked to say, “Media Ecology is general semantics writ large.” When Neil and I started the graduate programs in media ecology at New York University in 1970-71, we based our approaches to understanding media upon the principles of general semantics established by Alfred Korzybski in Science and Sanity. We also were influenced by S.I. Hayakawa’s Language in Thought and Action, Wendell Johnson’s People in Quandaries, Stuart Chase’s The Tyranny of Words, the work of Edward Sapir, Benjamin Lee Whorf, and Ludwig Wittgenstein on linguistic relativity, and the work of Adelbert Ames and Hadley Cantril on perception, among others. (6)

General Semantics & Social Work

From Some Implications of General Semantics Methodology for Social Work by Eleanor Parkhurst:

The study and use of the principles of general semantics can be helpful to the social worker in the development of her personal orientations and adjustment as well as in her treatment of the client…the indirect or unwitting application of principles embodied in the system of general semantics may be found in social work theory and practice. It may well be argued that if such ‘progress’ as has already been made in the field of social work is based on the unconscious use of these principles, still further ‘progress’ may be hastened and made to touch on more aspects of that field by the direct and continuous application of this general methodology. (7)

General Semantics & Business Management

From Managerial Judgment and Critical Thinking by William Exton, Jr.:

As a management consultant, I searched for a consistent integrated methodology—one which was so general in its applicability that it would be taught per se, or in relation to virtually any other body content. I wanted an intellectual discipline—at least potentially rigorous—which provided synergistic formulations with a history of successful applications. Fortunately, such a discipline already existed, known internationally as general semantics. (8)

General Semantics & Industrial Engineering

From General Semantics for Engineers?! by Wilson J. Bentley:

A one-credit hour course has been conducted at Oklahoma State University since the spring of 1955. The course is required of all third-year industrial engineering students in the undergraduate School of Industrial Engineering and Management…. As the instructor of this course I do not deceive myself into believing that I am instrumental in completely changing the life and character of these industrial engineers. But I’m pleased many alumni say this is the one course they remember. It appears that each student feels he got at least one good idea from the text and discussion. Good ideas are scarce. The experiment has been successful. So I plan to continue to talk to engineers about general semantics. (9)

General Semantics & Technical Assistance Work

From General Semantics in Technical Assistance Work by Sixten E. Flach:

A man or woman from what we call the Western World who takes an assignment as a United Nations technical assistance adviser to an underdeveloped country must be prepared to meet problems different from those he usually meets in his own country. In my experience, the adviser should not only be thoroughly informed about the general conditions—particularly the cultural conditions—of the country to which he is assigned, but he should also be familiar with the principles of general semantics. I am thinking of general semantics here as a scientific orientation or attitude—what Wendell Johnson called “a systematic attempt to formulate the general method of science in such a way that is might be applied not only in a few restricted areas of human experience, but generally in daily life.” (10)

General Semantics & Psychiatry

From General Semantics, Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Prevention by Alfred Korzybski:

Although general semantics is not a medical science, it has been a help to psychiatrists in dealing with their patients. I refer, of course, to psychiatrists who have gone through training in general semantics. General practitioners have also found general semantics very helpful. (11)

General Semantics & Negotiation

From The Complete Negotiator by Gerard I. Nierenberg:

…I have searched for the vital ethical center, that negotiators can relate to. It is time-binding…. In “General Semantics and Human Values,” General Semantics Bulletin, Winter-Spring, (1952), Dr. J.S.A. Bois reported: “Our course has become a full program of study and application of ‘G.S. Methods for Executives,’ and it has been used in varying degrees by individuals or groups of executives…. They generally report that it makes them ‘better men,’ more willing to ‘give and take’ etc. Some eventually discover ‘that G.S. gives a scientific foundation to the Golden Rule’… (12)

General Semantics & the Law

From How Just is Our System of Justice? by Frank Scardilli:

Research shows that it is an article of faith among most Americans, including our judges and lawyers, that the U.S. has the best system of justice in the world. Two obvious general semantics questions are: What do you mean? and How do you know? To the extent some may be using the terms “law” and “justice” interchangeably some caveats are in order… Some of our most prominent jurists have been highly critical of our overly adversarial legal system dating as far back as the Eisenhower Era when Chief Justice Earl Warren predicted its early demise. Perhaps its survival reflects the feisty rugged individualism, which has historically served Americans well but may require serious reexamination in today’s interdependent world where the vast majority of the nations reject our adversarial legal model. Moreover, we should not ignore the impact of its high cost on the quality and quantity of justice available in a society where experts say there is too much law for those who can afford it but not enough for those who cannot… In my opinion, a re-evaluation of the pros and cons of the adversarial system using the tools of general semantics would be most instructive in shedding further light on whether that system needs to be changed. (13)

General Semantics & Investing

From The General Semantics of Wall Street by John Magee:

Wall Street, as we use the word, is an abstraction, a symbol. It is real enough, but it isn’t the kind of reality that you can go and look at, and take pictures of, and walk around. It is a metaphor… To understand the strange and often irrational things that people do to themselves in Wall Street, it is necessary to explore the forces that operate on them, largely from within themselves. And, when you have traced these relations and understand them (using general semantics) at the levels of high abstraction, you may find when you come down to earth again that some of the puzzling and threatening problems of the market, and of life in all its other aspects, do not seem so puzzling and so threatening as they used to seem. (14)

General Semantics & The Teaching of Writing in College

From Building Critical Thinking Into a Freshman Writing Course by Linda Anstendig:

Thinking about critical thinking and general semantics, first in Dr. Rachel Lauer’s faculty development workshop at Pace University, and then in my classroom applications, has led me to make significant changes in my teaching. Content and methodology have begun to mesh more closely as I have redesigned my Freshman Developmental Writing course, trying to provide my students with conceptual tools and the ability to better analyze the materials of any discipline. (15)

General Semantics & The Teaching of Physics

From General Semantics and the Teaching of Physics by Alvin M. Weinberg:

The particular system of semantics which appears to me to me most useful in coping with certain problems in the teaching of physics is the one (called “General Semantics”) formulated by Alfred Korzybski in his remarkable book, Science and Sanity. This original work is necessarily repetitious in its presentation—it was addressed primarily to psychiatrists not laymen but there is such a wealth of pertinent material throughout the volume that the patient reader will be amazed by the wide applicability of the materials outlined in it. (16)

General Semantics & Organizational Leadership

From Using GS to Enhance Organizational Leadership by Martin H. Levinson:

Can we use general semantics to enhance organizational leadership? In my experience, more than fifteen years as an educational administrator in the New York City school system, it certainly can….To become a transformational leader, I recommend the use of GS ideas and formulations. They clearly helped me to improve my program. (17)

General Semantics & Philosophy

From General Semantics Guides Toward Better Futures by Milton Dawes:

I start with quotes from two philosophers: One from Bernard Lonergan, S.J., and the other from William James. Bernard Lonergan, S.J., wrote this about method. “A method is a set of directives that serve to guide a process toward a result.” William James wrote: “Philosophy is an unreasonably stubborn effort to think clearly.” We can apply these two time-binding gems to general semantics in this manner: general semantics provides us with a set of time-binding directives that we can use as guides to clarify our thinking and help us create better futures. (18)

General Semantics & Interdisciplinary Studies

From What Do You Mean and How Do You Know? by Nicholas Johnson:

General semantics draws upon, and contributes to, many academic fields of study. Indeed, one of general semantics’ great strengths over the years has been the near universal professional and academic applicability of the insights it makes possible. (19)

General Semantics & Anthropology

From Bronislaw Malinowski’s comment in the “Scientific Opinions About the First Edition, 1933” section in Science and Sanity by Alfred Korzybski:

The functional or relational conception of matter, mind and, finally, of human culture, seems to be generally crystallizing from all attempts at scientific synthesis. Count Korzybski’s work contributes to those efforts in no mean measure. (20)

General Semantics & The Social Sciences

From General Semantics and the Social Sciences by William J. Williams:

We, in the social sciences, public administration, and education in general, are being requested to supply those who look to us with a meaning for life. It throws us immediately and directly into the depths of psychological, philosophical and epistemological concerns…. The General Semantics epistemological process provides us with the opportunity (to deal with such concerns). Thus, the reasons for adopting this methodology. (21)

General Semantics & Creative Thinking

From For the Newcomer to General Semantics by Mary Morain:

By simplifying much that is complex, general semantics has helped thousands of individuals to better understand themselves, other people, and their environment. Personal relations are improved as communication blockages are dissolved. Considerable freedom rises when the rigidity of language ceases to control thinking and responses. Pressures formerly producing stress are often lessened. Debilitating automatic responses and self-defeating tendencies to jump to conclusions become less frequent. It is commonplace to experience a sense of renewed personal well-being and creative release. Outworn ideas can more easily be shed, leaving the mind open to fresh observations, more creative thinking. (22)

General Semantics & Child Rearing

From Bringing up the Family Semantically by Alice P. Cherbeneau:

We have been trying to teach our children the process of abstraction to aid them in avoiding identification and allness reactions. Korzybski’s chapter on “Non-Aristotelian Training” in Science and Sanity has some very interesting suggestions. We have used the apple, the orange, and other objects to demonstrate the abstracting process and to illustrate the changing in-process nature of our world. I agree with (general semantics expert) Dr. Irving Lee that, “Our language use too often emphasizes the static. We speak as if life facts were not changing, as if our statements fit for ‘all-time.’ The time factor must become a part of human orientation.” (23)

General Semantics & Critical Thinking

From Steve Allen’s “Foreword” in Thinking Creatically by Kenneth G. Johnson:

I shall never forget the literal thrill I felt some years ago at witnessing a demonstration by a group of children aged 12 or 13, all of whom had benefited from instruction in general semantics by Catherine Minteer. Each child first read aloud a newspaper article or advertisement, then analyzed it for the audience. The insight, the clarity, the brilliance with which those children separated hot air from factual, reasonable statements was tremendously exciting. God, if a generation of young Americans could be taught similar lessons, it is difficult to envision the benefits to society that could result. (24)

General Semantics & The Prevention of Bullying

From A General Semantics Approach to School-Age Bullying by Katherine Liepe-Levinson and Martin H. Levinson:

During the past fifty years numerous studies have demonstrated that general semantics instruction has positive effects on student attitudes, behavior, and learning. These effects include increased critical thinking, enhanced creativity, improved composition writing, improved personality adjustment, decreased prejudice, and decreased alienation. The positive feedback that we have received from students, teachers, and parents on our bully prevention workshops indicate that this is yet another area where general semantics training has proven beneficial in an educational setting. (25)

General Semantics & Self-Help

From Levels of Knowing and Existence by Harry L. Weinberg:

General semantics is a rational (self-help) methodology to be used by the individual himself…. General semantics is not a panacea; it will not end all anxieties, alleviate all worries, give the answer to the infinite varieties of complexities that all of us face. Rather, it is an aid, a potent one, among other tools man has developed for controlling both his external and internal environments. (26)

General Semantics & Problem Solving

From Drive Yourself Sane by Susan Presby Kodish and Bruce I. Kodish:

While we don’t view general semantics as a substitute for therapy, using it can create broad therapeutic effects in helping you to solve problems and communicate well. Preventively, using it can help you to avoid problems and create greater opportunities. Many people apply it to their professional lives, as well as it use to improve their day-to-day activities and relationships. Teachers, health professionals, psychologists, business people, engineers, computer specialists, artists, lawyers and other find it of great value in helping to resolve individual, organizational and global problems. (27)

General Semantics & Human Evaluating

From Korzybski and Semantics by Stuart Chase:

I can testify that twenty years of exposure to General Semantics have demonstrated that the evaluation of men and events can be sharpened by its use, that certain mental blocks can be remedied, that one’s writing can be clarified. Students of General Semantics report a better ability to listen, a reduction in the terrors of stage fright, help in cases of stuttering. General Semantics can aid in teaching children to understand their world, and in bringing “backward” scholars up to mark. It has led to a healthy re-examination of verbal proof. (28)

General Semantics & Ethics

From Time-Binding: To Build a Fire by James D. French:

For the society that adopts it, Korzybski’s theory could provide a secure, rational foundation for ethical behavior, an ethics based on the verifiable facts of human interdependence in time and space. If taught well in the schools, the theory could transform the whole outlook of our culture. Because time-binding is fully compatible with the great religions and science, it can be the foundation of a new American ethic. (29)

General Semantics & Emotional Intelligence

From General Semantics and Emotional Intelligence by Martin H. Levinson:

Since its inception, general semantics has been quite involved with “emotional intelligence.”

Science and Sanity (1933), the book that launched GS, focused heavily on how to increase human cooperation and reduce human misery and Wendell Johnson’s GS classic, People in Quandaries (1946), had as its subtitle The Semantics of Personal Adjustment. S.I. Hayakawa named his book Language in Action (1941) and Irving J. Lee wrote texts titled Language Habits in Human Affairs (1941) and The Language of Wisdom and Folly (1949). In the 1950s, J. Samuel Bois’ concern with emotion was evident in the title he chose for his book, Explorations in Awareness (1957). Today the tradition continues, with GS volumes such as Developing Sanity in Human Affairs (1998) and Drive Yourself Sane (2001); with IGS seminars that deal with educating people on the complex nature and inter-relatedness of thoughts and feelings; and with chapters in using general semantics in emotional self-management in Sensible Thinking for Turbulent Times (2006). (30)

General Semantics & The Art of Listening

From Do You Know How to Listen? by Wendell Johnson:

Another significant contribution to the art of listening has been made in recent years by general semantics. General semantics is by no means exclusively concerned with the art of listening. It provides a general approach to problems of evaluation, stressing the rudiments of the scientific method, so formulated as to be useful moment to moment in daily living. The contributions it makes to the art of listening are to be found especially in certain key questions it encourages the listener to ponder as he attends to any speaker. (31)

General Semantics & Intercultural Communication

From General Semantics and Intercultural Communication by Mitsuko Saito-Fukunaga:

In dealing with members of another culture, “extensional” (general semantics) devices can be used to help enable the listener to distinguish and react to nonverbal realities instead of verbal expressions. The five such devices briefly mentioned below are useful aids in keeping our minds open when listening and speaking… Using these devices will help improve mutual understanding in intercultural communication. (32)

General Semantics & Feminism(s)

From Glossing Over Feminism: A General Semantics Critique by Katherine Liepe-Levinson and Martin H. Levinson:

It makes sense that the term “feminism” would find its way into an array of glossaries, because the function of a glossary, in general, is to define and clarify terms. In our culture the word “feminism” covers enough ideological, intellectual, practical, and sensational territory to stir any number of map-makers into action. (The General Semantics glossary of Robert Pula) would appear to be an excellent forum to explore the diverse philosophic systems that make up the territory of “feminisms.” (33)

General Semantics & Semiotics

From General Semantics and Semiotics by Andrew Lohrey:

Semiotic analysis has traditionally been seen as the study of signs. Ever since Ferdinand de Saussure first proposed the science early this century there has been a growing interest in the subject. (1) It is doubtful if Alfred Korzybski ever read Saussure but much of the general semantics approach to language corresponds with semiotic analysis. (2) There are of course many differences, yet the differences seem to me to be ones that are mutually strengthening. What do I mean by this? Well, in regard to semiotics, in that area which has traditionally generated most controversy, that is, in the exclusion of a physical referent from the sign structure, I see Korzybski’s work as providing some answers. (34)

General Semantics & Neurolinguistic Programming

From Korzybski and General Semantics by George Doris:

…Korzybski spoke of ‘neuro-semantic’ and ‘neuro-linguistic‘ reactions—holistic terms for the functioning of the ‘human-organism-as-a-whole-in-an-environment’, with hyphens deliberately used to indicate interconnectedness. Readers of this magazine may now recognize a link with Neurolinguistic Programming, a recent development described in The Structure of Magic, I and II—books about language, therapy, communication and change. The authors, John Grinder, a linguist, and Richard Bandler, a gestalt therapisr—indicate their familiarity with Korzybski’s formulations by quoting him and citing Science and Sanity. The two ‘wizards’ they cite by name, Virginia Satir and Fritz Perls, have (also) acknowledged a debt to Korzybski. (35)

General Semantics & Self-Management

From Management of Stress by Milton Dawes:

In short, general semantics addresses the dynamics and structure of our intrapersonal, interpersonal, and inter-environmental communications, interactions, interrelationships, and as such is relevant to the understanding, orientation, and effective management of ourselves-in-our semantic environments. (36)

General Semantics & Science Fiction

From GS/SF by Jeremy Klein:

The tangled relation of general semantics to science fiction began within seven years of the publication of Science and Sanity. John W. Campbell, Jr., the influential editor of Astounding Science Fiction magazine, who regarded general semantics as a prototype “future science” encouraged several of his most popular writers to familiarize themselves with the general semantics literature. Campbell hoped they would incorporate some general semantics theory or methodology in their stories. Several writers did so, most notably A.E. van Vogt in his “null-A” novels, and Robert Heinlein, whose standard protagonist, the “competent man,” embodied the evaluative and reasoning habits encouraged by general semantics authors and instructors. General semantics figured in other ways too—as an indirect target of William Tenn’s satire in his short story “Null P” and as a source of new words (see, for example, Philip K. Dick’s idiosyncratic use of the term “time-binding” in his novel Flow My Tears, the Policeman Said). (37)

General Semantics & Design

From An Approach to Design by Norman T. Newton:

So long as we remain human we are going to continue using languages for communication, be it about design or about any other aspect of human living…. (And) we can at least try to be aware of the structural implications of our thought and of the language, in which we express it…. An admirable, extensive, yet simple treatment of that topic will be found in the works of Lee, Johnson, Hayakawa, and others. A careful study of these accounts will surely give you a keener insight into the entire question of verbal structure as compared with visual structure, especially in the realm of human use of symbol systems. (38)

General Semantics & the Efficient Use of Human Energy

From The Management of Time by James T. McCay:

Back in the 1920s, a Polish mathematician, engineer, and student of human behavior, Count Alfred Korzybski, worked out a theory of control at the level of the elements of our experience. He spent the rest of his life trying to help people recognize the value of his discovery. Later, Dr. J.S. Bois developed an observing grid based on Korzybski’s theory. He tested it and found that it yielded results beyond his expectations…. (It was) a grid for discovering energy losses in time to prevent them from taking place. (39)

General Semantics & Art Appreciation

From General Semantics and Modern Art by Oliver Bloodstein:

Korzybski’s method of general re-training of semantic reactions is particularly well adapted to orientational requirements for the ‘comprehension’ of modern art. He says, “We can train appropriate reactions simply and effectively by ‘silence on the objective levels,’ using familiar objects called ‘a chair,’ or ‘a pencil,’ and this training automatically affects our ‘emotions,’ ‘feelings,’ as well as other psycho-logical immediate responses difficult to reach, which are also not words.” Training of this kind is precisely what is required to facilitate lower order response to the structural meaning of modern art. (40)

Notes

1. Rachel Lauer, “General Semantics and the Future of Education,” ETC: A Review of General Semantics Vol. 24 Number 4 (December 1967): 401.

2. Francis P. Chisholm, Introductory Lectures on General Semantics (Lakeville, CT: Institute of General Semantics, 1956), iii-iv.

3. John C. Merrill, Journalism Ethics: Philosophical Foundations for News Media (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1997), 155.

4. Bruce I. Kodish, “Psycho-Logical Fate and Freedom,” ETC: A Review of General Semantics Vol. 62 Number 4 (October 2005): 360.

5. Michael Cole, http://communication.ucsd.edu/berman/, read on February 5, 2010.

6. Terence P. Moran, “Media Ecology is General Semantics Writ Large,” General Semantics Bulletin Vol. 74/75 (2007/2008): 38.

7. Eleanor Parkhurst, “Some Implications of General Semantics Methodology for Social Work,” ETC: A Review of General Semantics Vol. 61 Number 4 (December 2004): 641, 648.

8. William Exton, Jr., “Managerial Judgment and Critical Thinking,” in Kenneth G. Johnson, Thinking Creatically, 33.

9. Wilson J. Bentley, “General Semantics for Engineers?!,” ETC: A Review of General Semantics Vol. 26 Number 1 (March 1969): 64, 68.

10. Sixten E. Flach, “General Semantics in Technical Assistance Work,” ETC: A Review of General Semantics Vol. 24 Number 3 (September 1967): 335.

11. Alfred Korzybski, “General Semantics, Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Prevention” in Isabel Caro and Charlotte Schuchardt Read, eds, General Semantics in Psychotherapy (Brooklyn, NY: Institute of General Semantics, 2003), 36.

12. Gerard I. Nierenberg, The Complete Negotiator (New York: Nierenberg & Zeif, 1986), 255.

13. This is an excerpt from an unpublished talk titled “How Just is Our System of Justice?” given by Frank J. Scardilli, an attorney and federal mediator, at the “Across the Generations: Legacies of Hope and Meaning” Conference held at Fordham University in New York on 13 September 2009.

14. John Magee, The General Semantics of Wall Street (Springfield, MA: John Magee, 1958), 1.

15. Linda Anstendig, “Building Critical Thinking Into a Freshman Writing Course” in Kenneth G. Johnson, Thinking Creatically, 211.

16. Alvin M. Weinberg, “General Semantics and the Teaching of Physics,” The American Physics Teacher Vol. 7 Number 2 (April 1939): 104.

17. Martin H. Levinson, “Using GS to Enhance Organizational Leadership,” ETC: A Review of General Semantics Vol. 62 Number 3 (July 2005): 251, 259.

18. Milton Dawes, “General Semantics Guides Toward Better Futures, General Semantics Bulletin Vol. 74/75 (2007/2008): 84.

19. Nicholas Johnson, What Do You Mean and How Do You Know? (Morrisville, NC: Lulu Press, 2009), 8.

20. Bronislaw Malinowski, From “Scientific Opinions About the First Edition, 1933” in Alfred Korzybski, Science and Sanity: An Introduction to Non-Aristotelian Systems and General Semantics, Fifth Edition, (Englewood, NJ: Institute of General Semantics, 1994), 784.

21. William J. Williams, General Semantics and the Social Sciences (New York: Philosophical Library, 1972), xxi.

22. Mary Morain, “For the Newcomer to General Semantics,” in Mary Morain, ed., Enriching Professional Skills Through General Semantics (San Francisco: International Society for General Semantics, 1986), x.

23. Alice P. Cherbeneau, “Bringing up the Family Semantically,” in Morain, Enriching Professional Skills Through General Semantics, 280.

24. Steve Allen, “Foreword” in Kenneth G. Johnson, Thinking Creatically (Englewood, NJ: Institute of General Semantics, 1991), ix.

25. Katherine Liepe-Levinson and Martin H. Levinson, “A General Semantics Approach to School-Age Bullying,” ETC: A Review of General Semantics Vol. 62 Number 1 (January 2005): 15-16.

26. Harry L. Weinberg, Levels of Knowing and Existence (New York, Harper, 1959), 10, 12.

27. Susan Presby Kodish and Bruce I. Kodish, Drive Yourself Sane: Using the Uncommon Sense of General Semantics, Revised Second Edition (Pasadena, CA: Extensional Publishing, 2001), 20.

28. Stuart Chase, “Korzybski and Semantics,” The Saturday Review, (19 June 1954): 48.

29. James D. French, “Time-Binding: To Build a Fire,” ETC: A Review of General Semantics Vol. 46 Number 3 (Fall 1989): 196.

30. Martin H. Levinson, “General Semantics and Emotional Intelligence,” ETC: A Review of General Semantics Vol. 65 Number 3 (July 2008): 249.

31. Wendell Johnson “Do You Know How to Listen?,” ETC: A Review of General Semantics Vol. 7 Number 1 (Autumn 1949): 6.

32. Mitsuko Saito-Fukunaga, “General Semantics and Intercultural Communication,” ETC: A Review of General Semantics Vol. 46 Number 4 (Winter 1989): 297.

33. Katherine Liepe-Levinson and Martin H. Levinson, “Glossing Over Feminism: A General Semantics Critique,” ETC: A Review of General Semantics Vol. 52 Number 4 (Winter 1995-96): 440.

34. Andrew Lohrey, “General Semantics and Semiotics,” ETC: A Review of General Semantics Vol. 43 Number 4 (Winter 1986): 368.

35. George Doris, “Korzybski and Neurolinguistic Programming,” General Semantics Bulletin Number 50 (1983): 142.

36. Milton Dawes, “Management of Stress,” ETC: A Review of General Semantics Vol. 47 Number 2 (Summer 1990): 193.

37. Jeremy Klein, “GS/SF,” ETC: A Review of General Semantics Vol. 59 Number 3 (Fall 2002): 244.

38. Norman T. Newton, An Approach to Design (Cambridge, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1951), 27, 28.

39. James T. McCay, The Management of Time (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1959), 57.

40. Oliver Bloodstein, “General Semantics and Modern Art,” ETC: A Review of General Semantics Vol. 1 Number 1 (August 1943): 23.

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